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Cryptography and Hardware Security in Cyber Physical Systems

Dr. Debdeep Mukhopadhyay, Dr. Shivam Bhasin, Sayandeep Saha, Urbi Chatterjee

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Trainer Names: Dr. Debdeep Mukhopadhyay, Dr. Shivam Bhasin, Sayandeep Saha, Urbi Chatterjee
Title: Cryptography and Hardware Security in Cyber Physical Systems
Duration: 4 Days
Dates: 13th - 16th August 2020
Time: 10.00 AM to 2.00 PM IST
Type: Online Training on Zoom platform


Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) is a close association between computational and communication blocks (referred to as “cyber”) and components for sens- ing real data and actuating thereof (referred to as “physical”). While CPS is a tremendous enabler to improved quality of living conditions around the world, the combination of physical systems with the cyber world pose threats which, if not catered, can lead to catastrophic consequences. The subsystems involved in the CPS are at a larger exposure with an adversary increasing the feasibility of physical attacks which can jeopardize security. The ex- treme longevity of CPS also necessitates the ability of the CPS components for enduring new attacks which are constantly being surfaced. What makes security in CPS all the more challenging is that these threats and security challenges are often to be mitigated in extremely constrained environments due to factors low-cost and low-energy specifications.

In this course, we shall take a holistic look at security, starting from theoretical foundations of Cryptography to Advanced Topics of Hardware Security to learn how the ciphering algorithms are realized on actual hard- ware. The course shall discuss on fundamental blocks like Symmetric Key Encryptions and Asymmetric Key Encryptions, along with discussions on attacks (cryptanalysis) of these techniques. The course shall then discuss lightweight hardware implementations of such ciphers, targeting FPGA based solutions as a popular design platform. The course then discusses several hardware attacks, called side-channel-attacks, which are based on monitor- ing the power/electromagnetic radiations from the enciphering hardware. As CPS devices have to operate in a rugged environment, fault tolerance and the effect of this on hardware security will also be deliberated in the course. The talk will also focus on suitable countermeasures to resist such attacks. Finally, as the CPS is made of several heterogeneous devices, authentication among these devices is of paramount importance. While the resource con- straints in the CPS nodes often renders classical algorithms an overkill, the physical characteristics of the CPS devices give rise to promising primitives called Physically Unclonable Functions (PUFs) which can be leveraged to achieve authentication protocols suited for CPS. The course concludes with a real-life smart-metering example to demonstrate the use of these hardware security primitives in co-ordination.

Topics Covered

Day 1

  • Basics
    • Introduction to Cryptography
    • Introduction to Side-Channel Analysis (SCA)
    • Introduction to Cyber Physical Systems (CPS)

  • Exercise
    • AES-128 implementation
    • Simulation of SCA leakage traces

Day 2

  • Side-Channel Analysis
    • Correlation Power Analysis (CPA)
    • Leakage detection – TVLA and NICV
    • SCA on PKC
    • SCA countermeasures

  • Exercise
    • CPA implementation
    • CPA on simulated traces
    • CPA on real traces
    • Implementing Countermeasures (misalignment) and analysis

Day 3

  • Fault Analysis
    • Basics of Fault Attack: (FA)
    • Fault injection
    • Differential Fault Analysis (DFA)
    • FA on PKC
    • FA countermeasures
    • Advanced attacks

  • Exercise
    • Implementation of AES rounds
    • Implementation of fault injection functions

Day 4

  • CPS Security with Hardware Root of Trust
    • Physically Unclonable Functions (PUF)
    • Security of PUF
    • CPS security with PUF
    • Smart meter case study
    • Smart grid case study

  • Exercise + Demo
    • Implementation of DFA on AES – CPS Demo
    • CPS Demo

Training Formats

  • Technical seminar & tutorial
  • Hands-on exercise

Who Should Attend

After having this course, one is expected to be able to perform certain physical attacks on embedded and CPS devices.

The audience should include (but not limited to) :

  • Hardware and software Product designers/tester/manufacturers.
  • Evaluation and certification laboratories
  • Future Security Professional and Engineers
  • Government agencies and research institutes
  • Technologists and Consultants in Current Market Trends


  • Previous acquaintance to security and cryptography
  • Basic understanding of programming in Python

About Trainers

Debdeep Mukhopadhyay

Debdeep Mukhopadhyay is currently a full Professor at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT-Kharagpur, India. At IIT Kharagpur he initiated the Secured Embedded Architecture Laboratory (SEAL), with a focus on Embedded Security and Side Channel Attacks (http://cse.iitkgp.ac.in/resgrp/seal/) . Prior to this he worked asAssociate Professor at IIT Kharagpur, visiting scientist at NTU Singapore, a visiting Associate Professor of NYU-Shanghai, Assistant Professor at IIT-Madras, and as visiting researcher at NYU Tandon-School-of-Engineering, USA. He holds a PhD, an MS, and a B. Tech from IIT Kharagpur, India.

Dr.Mukhopadhyay's research interests are Cryptography, Hardware Security, andVLSI. His books include Fault Tolerant Architectures for Cryptography andHardware Security (Springer), Cryptography and Network Security (Mc GrawHills), Hardware Security: Design, Threats, and Safeguards (CRC Press), and Timing Channels in Cryptography (Springer).

He has written more than 150 papers in peer-reviewed conferences and journals and has collaborated with severalIndian and Foreign Organizations. He has been in the program committee of several top International conferences and is an Associate Editor of the International Association of Cryptologic Research (IACR) Transactions of CHES,IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security (IEEE TIFS), ACMTransactions on Embedded Computing Systems (ACM-TECS), ACM Journal of Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems (ACM JETC), Journal of Hardware and Systems Security, Journal of Cryptographic Engineering, Springer. He has given several invited talks in industry and academia, including tutorial talks at premier conferences like CHES, WIFS, VLSID.

Dr. Mukhopadhyay is the recipient of the prestigious Swarnajayanti DST Fellowship 2015-16, Data Security Council of India Award for Cyber Security Education, Young Scientist award from the Indian National Science Academy, the Young Engineer award from the Indian National Academy of Engineers, and is a Young Associate of the Indian Academy of Science. He was also awarded the Outstanding Young Faculty fellowship in 2011 from IIT Kharagpur, and the Techno-Inventor Best PhD award by the IndianSemiconductor Association. He has recently incubated a start-up on HardwareSecurity, ESP Pvt Ltd at IIT Kharagpur (http://esp-research.com/).

Dr. Shivam Bhasin

Dr. Shivam Bhasin is a Senior Research Scientist and Programme manager (Cryptographic engineering) at Centre for Hardware Assurance, Temasek laboratories, Nanyang Technical University ([email protected]), Singapore since 2015. His research interests include embedded security, trusted computing and secure designs. He received his PhD from Telecom Paristech in 2011, Master’s from Mines Saint-Etienne, France in 2008. Before NTU, Shivam held position of Research Engineer in Institut Mines-Telecom, France. He was also a visiting researcher at UCL, Belgium (2011) and Kobe University, Japan (2013). Shivam also taught hardware security as an Adjunct Professor in IIT, Kharagpur, India (2018). He regularly publishes at top peer reviewed journals and conferences. Some of his research now also forms a part of ISO/IEC 17825 standard.

Sayandeep Saha

Sayandeep Saha is a PhD scholar in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur. He received his MS degree from the same place in 2016. His research interests include implementation-based attacks, automatic security verification against such attacks, and logic locking.

Sayandeep regularly publishes at top peer reviewed conferences and journals such as CHES, EUROCRYPT, DAC, IEEE TIFS etc. He is one of the winners of the Qualcomm Innovation Fellowship 2017.

Urbi Chatterjee

Urbi Chatterjee is a Ph.D. Student in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, since December 2014. Her Ph.D. program is jointly supervised by Dr. Rajat Subhra Chakraborty and Prof. Debdeep Mukhopadhyay. She is a member of Secure Embedded Architecture Laboratory (SEAL) and her broad area of research is design of lightweight authentication and key exchange protocols based on physically unclonable functions for the Internet of Things (IoT) framework. Before joining her Ph. D. program, she did her masters in IIT(ISM) Dhanbad and worked in TATA Consultancy Services Limited Kolkata as Assistant Systems Engineer.

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